Monday, August 24, 2020
Airtel New Advertising Campaign A Critical Analysis Marketing Essay The primary inquiry we experience in the investigation of publicizing and brand advancements as understudies is the reason promoting? Is it extremely significant? All things considered, what amount of job does advancement have as impact of the 4Ps in understanding a definitive advertising goals of the brand or the organization? The new promotion crusade of Airtel gives a captivating case that encourages us in examining these inquiries with every one of their criticalities. Foundation Airtel is an Indian global telecom specialist organization with nearness across 19 nations. In India it is one of the most rumored brands. Outside India, it is known as Zain in Africa and Warid in Bangladesh. Having changed the telecom business in the a long time since its initiation, Airtel chose to reposition the brand with another logo, jingle and commercials in order to have a uniform nearness around the world. The thought behind the new situating was to mean Airtels venture towards the new universe of digitization. It needed to make its essence felt in the 3 G, web-based social networking and versatile based online business space and associate with the new age clients. Henceforth a London based promotion office thought of the new logo with letter an in lowercase, with Airtel composed underneath it in lowercase. In the expressions of Sanjay Kapoor, the CEO of Bharti Airtel, The new logo is current ,lively , neighborly and means Airtels responsibility to connect with its investors and purchasers , the letters in the lowercase is an image of its quietude . New logo Old Logo http://www.afaqs.com/all/news/pictures/news_story_grfx/2010/28828_2.jpg http://www.afaqs.com/all/news/pictures/news_story_grfx/2010/28828_1.jpg The Launch The new logo is matched with the slogan Dil jo chahe pass laye again strengthening Airtels responsibility to the clients. The new look was advanced through all the promoting channels, for example, TV, print, outside and computerized battles. While trying to cause the clients to relate to the new look, Airtel even propelled a crusade where the clients needed to name the new logo of Airtel .To reemphasize the new look of the Airtel ,A.R Rehman was roped in to form a new jingle for Airtel . The story so far looked great .With the enormous names, for example, JWT, Madison Media Plus, Digitas and Web chutneyÃ¢ working behind the crusade, one could have been guaranteed of the accomplishment of the battle. The Backlash What occurred next shocked everybody. Internet based life space and papers the same were swirling with the negative analysis of the new look and crusade. Internet based life discussions about the rebranding exercise In a study led by brand screen examination the slant of tweets, the outcomes demonstrated that AlmostÃ¢ 62%Ã¢ of the discussions about the new Airtel logo were negative Ã Facebook conversations and LinkedIn conversations the Position group broke down, 3 unmistakable topics around the responses developed: ApproximatelyÃ¢ 15% of the discussions were immediate comparisonsÃ¢ of the new Airtel logo to the Videocon and Vodafone logos ApproximatelyÃ¢ 10%Ã¢ of the discussions recommended that Airtel ought to have put cash in improving their client assistance and system accessibility An exceptionally little minorityÃ¢ (1%) required a restoration of the old logoÃ¢ or a new update work out (Source: http://blogs.position2.com/airtel-brand-redo online life reaction) Fans even went to the degree of contrasting the logo and Videocon Vodafone logo Snap to amplify: Logo Comparisons Created by a fan Essential Research So as to get a direct record of the client response the Airtels new promoting effort I talked with some kindred B school understudies who have done their specialization in advertising. Given beneath are portions of a portion of the meetings Sayan Majumder: I dont interface with new brand personality of Airtel .I had progressively passionate connection with the past one. The facts confirm that an organization has to know to advance yet there was no requirement for Airtel to rebrand itself. It could have concentrated on giving more on consumer loyalty Sakyabrata Dutta: Airtel visual intrigue has gone for a hurl .In an endeavor to interest a worldwide crowd the ad has lost its nearby flavor Sandeep Somisetty: The new advancement techniques of Airtel are certainly a conscious endeavor to interface with the youthful 3G crowd. The attention on innovation as the hidden subject of its commercials unquestionably fortifies the brand as an innovation shrewd one. In any case, I don't know how much this extreme brand repositioning will convert into upgraded top-line development for the organization. From my little information on the telecom division, the majority of the wellsprings of income lie in the undiscovered country showcase. It is elusive them associate with this new urban, cosmopolitan symbol of the brand. The Learning Regardless of the underlying negative opinions ,purchasers have now begun to associate with new brand personality and may in the long run come to like it .But whatever might be the conclusive outcomes for Airtel ,this battle will consistently be associated with the object it made and a hardly any exercises a publicizing proficient can learn. Clients own the image for them its a lifestyle and any adjustment in the brand suggestion ought to be finished contemplating client; in any case the millions spend on publicizing simply go down the channel. Such a disaster can even influence the deals of the organization. In one case a sales rep was down and out that the businesspeople were ridiculing the new product of the Airtel. Commercial structures an essential piece of the advertising of a brand. It is a way to arrive at the customers and ought to be structured remembering the last promoting target to be accomplished. At last, promoters ought to discover that If it aint broke, dont fix it. The Airtel brand itself was work through long stretches of enormous difficult work model execution. It isn't clear what provoked this difference in situating, might be the ongoing telecom inconveniences went about as impetuses. In any case, confirmations propose that whatever be the intention, it was not fruitful. The brand directors of Airtel might be compelled to take an exercise like those at Coca-Cola who broadly presented the New Coke in 1985 in light of Pepsi needed to take it back after colossal purchaser backfire.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Question: Examine about theMarketing for Reliability, Workmanship and Durability. Answer: Presentation Associations today have moved towards utilizing limited time strategies for improving their quality picture in the market. Ads are putting significance on quality alongside viewpoints like unwavering quality, workmanship and sturdiness. It has become the obligation of the organizations that they should first appropriately develop their nature of the items and administrations to satisfy the cases of their promoting. Clients are searching for answers for their issues, they are not searching for negligible items. Realizing what the worth needs of the client requests an undivided attention of the clients needs, which would prompt genuine following up on the data (Brocato, Voorhees and Baker 2012). Conversation Client desires is the comprehension of what it required for giving incomparable client support that would bring unrivaled consumer loyalty. The necessity of knowing and acknowledging who are the clients and grasp their needs are critical. Client desire is a major part of client support and fulfillment and it sets the benchmark such that mirrors on ensuring client dependability and repurchasing. Conveying a decent items or administration to any client would guarantee the arrival of the client and even ensure the agreeable experience would acquire a ton of informal exposure and more clients. Client support is about desires, which gets molded by the encounters they had beforehand. It is the duty of the organizations to meet or outperform the desires clients have. Client care either gets commended or censured dependent on the desires. On the off chance that the administration can meet desires, at that point the organization is doing precisely what is normal and they would not get any sor t of analysis or recognition (Daunt and Harris 2012). In the event that any industry is known for having terrible client care, at that point they have the chance of getting fantastic upper hand by moving up to phenomenal client care, on the off chance that not, at that point normal. Desires for clients are perpetually advancing and individuals are utilizing distinctive better approaches for interfacing with organizations. Web-based social networking has become a significant client support divert in associations. In key terms, the relationship between any client and business is an excursion. There is a crucial gathering (be it on the web or eye to eye), where desires (ideally) will be unmistakably settled. By at that point, the business starts the way toward passing on those desires. In the event that the desires are met, the client is fulfilled, and is along these lines in danger to return later on. The key issue here is that clients point of view of a business depends upon the separation between what the client needs and what the clien t gets. It's a pinch of alarming to understand that certainly the possibility of client assistance an affiliation passes on is when in doubt less key in picking customer relentlessness than how much an affiliation meets or outflanks desires (O'Cass and Sok 2013). An affiliation that has generally poor help levels, yet pulls in clients because of settlement or cost won't continue monetarily, considering current conditions, stood apart from a relationship with clients who have exclusive requirements that are frustrated. That is one motivation driving why various affiliations are fantastically beneficial despite the way that their client assistance is detestable. The opening among desires, and what is given is near nothing or non-existent (Goddard et al. 2012). In an association, client assistance hole is found if there is a distinction found between client desires and client discernments. The most ideal approach to close these holes is by fathoming client needs and knowing client desi res. The SERVQUAL (administration quality hole model) is a model in administration quality administration that can be utilized for recognizing holes existing between client desires and the genuine administrations that are offered at the various phases of administration conveyance, and furthermore for shutting the hole and bettering client care. Improvement of client experience has become a tremendous element of corporate technique and more administrators are confronting the choice of focusing on their associations for expanding client experience change. Be that as it may, that isn't sufficient for understanding that the positive aftereffects of progress are gigantic. The most prompt obstacle would be settling on the method of organizing the association and its rollout and afterward choosing where and the best approach to begin. These significant issues are sweeping and convoluted as the client experience changes regularly bomb satisfying the hopes. The base of such changes request associations in rolling out social improvements and afterward requiring themselves both monetarily and operationally (de Oa, de Oa and Calvo 2012). Cross useful client ventures cut across regular hierarchical limits and acquiring any change this is troublesome. It is incredibly indispensable that the administration configuration is considered befo re beginning - choosing the structure, analyzing the best grouping for the organization and ensuring administration specialists are locked in and inescapable obstruction is limited. The organization may likewise consider contemplating where to begin from for ensuring conveying close to term impression. It is fundamental for fulfillment of force and hierarchical purchase in and for the distinguishing proof of financing and the capacity of reinvesting in the change (Ulaga and Loveland 2014). Client desires and fulfillment are steadily related. Clients feel less fulfilled when they anticipate something from an affiliation anyway don't get what they predicted. Then again, on the off chance that they have low desires for an affiliation and are charmingly staggered, they may feel more fulfilled than if they had tip top necessities and feel they have been let down. Anomalous, affiliations are not generally arranged to unequivocally imagine what clients will speculate from them, and frameworks of get-together and investigating criticism are usually fundamental. Reliably, a client's degree of fulfillment is subject to the desires he has for an affiliation. For instance, on the off chance that he imagines that an affiliation will offer instigate administration, in any case he experiences delays in the treatment of his request, he may feel unsatisfied. In like manner, in the event that he accepts an affiliation will give a quality item and his buy has all the reserves of being un obtrusively made, he may feel tragic. So also, a client may feel frustrated with a relationship on the off chance that he accepts his business is respected, yet an affiliation shows generally by engaging its operators to excuse him, act inconsiderately, or negligence to react sensibly to complaints. An extraordinary piece of the time, client desires and fulfillment are affected by the advancements an affiliation uses to offer its items or administrations. For instance, if an affiliation uncovered that it outlines arranges inside a specific time partition anyway then neglects to satisfy this, its clients are in all likelihood going to feel hoodwinked by the progression and disappointed (Victorino, Verma and Wardell 2013). In like manner, if an affiliation progresses itself as putting client care in the first place, anyway then shows just a common degree of worry here, its clients are apparently going to be less fulfilled. In such cases, the connection between client desires and fulfi llment is one the affiliation affected with its publicizing claims. Now and again a client's own specific assumptions around an affiliation insignificant to progressing can in addition sway the relationship between client desires and fulfillment. For instance, if a client accepts an affiliation has the power to rapidly and unquestionably explore a gear issue, anyway the affiliation can't give a finding in a flash, the client may feel let down. The equivalent may remain consistent if the client imagines that an affiliation will perceive uncommon requests yet it diminishes to do in that limit. Various affiliations wrongly try to meet recognized desires rather than recognizing what the clients' desires truly are. In the event that the desires are recognized, the affiliation's needs may have all the reserves of being messed up considering the way that is doesn't by any stretch out of the imaginative vitality handle what its clients require or consider all around principal. In such cases and considering the relationship between client desires and fulfillment, finding persuading systems for gaging client needs may show key for the affiliation's prospering (Miles, Miles and Cannon 2012). At one level, the hypothesis of promoting has far reaching application the equivalent covered concerns and standards apply whatever the chance of the business. Regardless, the nature of a specific help business may manage a need to put inside and out progressively crucial accentuation on certain showcasing sections, which thusly could prompt varying advertising draws near. It is routinely combat that administrations have excellent characteristics that diverse them from stock or made items. The four most usually credited to administrations are: Impalpability administrations are to a gigantic degree sensible and dangerous. Heterogeneity administrations are non-standard and altogether factor. Indivisibility administrations are normally made and gobbled up in the interim, with client interest simultaneously. Perishability it is irrational to store benefits in stock (Duverger 2012). End All in all, it has been discovered that associations today have moved towards utilizing limited time strategies for improving their quality picture in the market. Ads are putting significance on quality alongside angles like dependability,
Saturday, July 18, 2020
Drama Therapy for Troubled Teens Theories Behavioral Psychology Print Drama Therapy for Troubled Teens How drama therapy can be extremely effective By Kathryn Rudlin, LCSW Updated on January 19, 2018 Hill Street Studios / Getty Images More in Theories Behavioral Psychology Cognitive Psychology Developmental Psychology Personality Psychology Social Psychology Biological Psychology Psychosocial Psychology Expressive or creative therapies, such as drama therapy, are a unique way to deal with problems, express yourself, set goals and gain confidence. Amongst the expressive therapies, drama therapy offers the best forum for teens to try on new roles, learn new ways of relating and express how they feel. What Is Drama Therapy? Drama therapy takes a unique approach to helping teens by using drama and/or theater techniques, including improvisation, role-playing, using puppets and acting out stories. It is an active, experiential form of creative therapy that helps teens gain self-confidence and explore new problem-solving skills. Drama therapy combines drama and psychotherapy methods to offer teens new ways to express what they are thinking or feeling in order to cope more effectively with behavioral and emotional problems. No previous experience or dramatic training is needed for a teen to participate. A Registered Drama Therapist (RDT) facilitates this specialized type of therapy. Why It Appeals to Teens They get the chance to rehearse new ways of being or actingThey get to tell their story to an audience The story details and ending can be changedActing-out is encouraged as a learning toolThey learn to look at problems from a different perspective Drama therapy feels like playing Examples Youre having a significant conflict with a sibling, so youre asked to role-play a scene in which you pretend to be your sibling and speak from their perspective. In a group setting, each teen acts out a role they take in the group, such as someone who exhibits leadership or someone who is scapegoated by others. Benefits Drama therapy has a whole host of benefits, including: Encouraging you to learn how to solve your problemsGiving you an opportunity to express how you are feeling Learning how to set goals for yourselfHelping you improve how you relate to other peopleUnderstanding yourself and your experiences more clearlyTaking these skills with you into your roles at home, school, and/or work to improve the way you cope with lifeUsing creativity, imagination and play to practice reacting to difficult situationsGetting to the point of addressing problems quicklyA way to escape from the pressures of life into the imagination for a little whileInteracting with others in a safe, comfortable environment Where Is Drama Therapy Offered? According to the North American Drama Therapy Association, you can find Registered Drama Therapists in outpatient and inpatient mental health settings, at schools, shelters, community centers, after-school programs, multicultural centers, group homes, private practice, hospitals, wellness centers, hospices, home health agencies, early intervention programs, and rehabilitative facilities. Credentials to Become a Registered Drama Therapist A masters degree in psychology or a related field, as well as coursework in drama therapy, is required in order to become a registered drama therapist. RDTs must also go through a supervised internship, have experience in theater, and be board-certified in drama therapy. Other Forms of Expressive Therapy Drama therapy is just one form of expressive or creative therapy. There are others, including music therapy, writing therapy, art therapy and dance therapy, that can help draw on your teens creative abilities and personal expression.
Thursday, May 21, 2020
We live in a society that is not very accepting of individual differences. There is always a norm to strive towards. But what happens if one is unable to meet these norms due to physical or mental impairment? Those who are affected by impairments are treated differently by typical-abled members of society, stigmatized, stereotyped, or pitied, all of which can make one feel subhuman. The way that our society reacts to individuals with physical and mental impairments is what causes them to be disabled. Disability is a social problem that hinders the flourishing of those affected by impairments. There are numerous ways that a person can be impaired, some appearing to be more severe than others. Some philosophers like Peter Singer argue that being impaired is a harm which requires biomedical intervention to help the individual affected to function in society and prevent them from suffering, and that if given the chance, we should select against disability ; however people affected by impairments have learned to adapt and live with their impairment. They are typically not suffering because they have one, as many assume. According to Barnes, being impaired is only part of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life; it does not necessarily make up the entire global concept their life quality (340). Barnes makes the argument that similar to being homosexual, a person with an impairment life would be harder, but we cannot assume that the person life quality is less than that of an unimpaired person. As anShow MoreRelatedThe Walk By Judith Butler And Sunaura Taylor976 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAfter watching t he documentary Ã¢â¬Å"The WalkÃ¢â¬ with Judith Butler and Sunaura Taylor that we watched in class together as a whole. It made me wonder about how Taylor put the idea of being handicapped as a political meaning, rather than just a social or medical way of living. In the documentary, the two women talk about the vast ways that handicapped people face today in the world. Throughout the semester we have learned how not just handicapped people like Taylor a person with a physical impairment areRead MoreImpaired Nurse667 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesAccording to the American Nurses Association, an impaired nurse is unable to meet the requirements of the code of ethics and standards of practice of the profession. This nurse has cognitive, interpersonal or psychomotor skills affected by psychiatric illness and/or drug or alcohol abuse of addiction (American Nurses Association, 2010). Not only do these nurses create a potential threat to their clients, but they have also neglected to care for t hemselves. A survey has been recorded about theRead MoreThe Class Placement of Students with ADD/ADHD1721 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmany learning impaired students to do worse academically and socially than if they had been placed in an inclusive setting. By definition, ADD/ADHD students that are placed in an inclusive setting are seated in the same classroom with students who do not have ADD/ADHD. ADD/ADHD students receiving special support in regular classes succeed academically and socially more often than ADD/ADHD students in special classes. The variables that affect the academic progress of a learning impaired student withRead MorePublic Awareness of Visually Impaired Persons Communication Skills1304 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPublic Awareness of Visually Impaired Persons Communication Skills It has been observed by the researcher that in public settings often the reaction to a visually impaired person is quite different then to that of a sighted person. Society seems to have a predisposed perception of the communication abilities of visually impaired people. This study hopes to establish a correlation between the perception that visually impaired people are also speech impaired when they are in a setting where theyRead MoreEssay about Students With ADD/ADHD and Class Placement1218 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesother students without learning-disabilities. Consequently, many students with learning disabilities are placed in classrooms that are designated only for students with learning disabilities. It is because of this classroom placement problem that many learning-impaired students are doing worse academically and socially in a non-inclusive setting than in an inclusive one. A non-inclusive setting is when students with learning-impairments like ADD/ADHD are placed in a Ã¢â¬ Å"special classÃ¢â¬ with other learning-impairmentRead MoreComparing And Differences, Louis Braille, Helen Keller, And Stevie Wonder1228 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesaccidental stabbing incident in his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s workshop.Ã¢â¬ (Braille Works). Louis Braille didnÃ¢â¬â¢t let the accident determine the rest of his life, instead became the inventor of braille writing. Braille writing is a series of raised dots for visually impaired individuals to feel instead of seeing the words written out. Helen Keller is a name people hear of often, but is her success story truly known? Ã¢â¬Å"Helen Keller was the first deaf and blind person to graduate from college. Keller then went on to becomeRead MoreConversations about Disability Essay1367 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesworld of norms .Everyone tries to be normal. The focus on construction of disability as on the construction of normalcy .The problem is the way that normalcy is constructed to create the problem of the disabled person .There is an i nherent desire to compare to others .Norm is less a condition of human nature than it is feature of a certain kind of society .The social problem of disabling arrived with industrialisation in 19th century .Disabling was related to nationality, race, gender, criminalityRead MoreWhat Causes Hearing Impairment1064 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesfrom the outside world, communication usually become frustrated for hearing-impaired students when interact with their peer. They showed lower self-awareness, self-management, frustration tolerance and impulsivity in their characteristics. Therefore, it is common to see emotional and social behavior difficulties in hearing-impaired individuals. As a speech and language pathologist, who is going to work with hearing-impaired students in language and communication aspect and likely to be the only goRead More Assistive technology for the blind and visually impaired Essay1321 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesI have chosen to cover is, Ã¢â¬Å"The impacts of assistive t echnology for the blind and visually impaired.Ã¢â¬ I will discuss the benefits and drawbacks to using advanced technology to promote development. I will also look at how assistive technology is being implemented and what effects it has on the visually impaired. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;There are approximately 10 to 11 million blind and visually impaired people in North America, and their visual abilities vary almost as much as their ethnic, racialRead MoreChildren With Disabilities Act ( Ada )1222 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageslaws in place for Deaf individuals. In 1991, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Ã¢â¬â a civil rights law was implemented across the U.S [with four sections] that prohibit discrimination against people with disabilities including deaf and hearing impaired people. The purpose of the ADA is to make sure that people with disabilities have the same rights and opportunities as everyone else. Each section of the ADA Ã¢â¬â employment, government, public accommodations, and telecommunications Ã¢â¬â lists services
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
When you go to your local pharmacy and pick up medicine, do you know what animals have gone through to get it on the shelves? It is something weÃ¢â¬â¢ll never have to imagine going through, so why should animals? Animal testing is not necessary. Animals simply donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a choice if they want to be experimentd on. What makes me angry, is there are alternative methods to testing, so animals donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to suffer. Animals have to endure terrible pain, fear, and loneliness, which is cruel and mean on our part. The pros and cons to testing donÃ¢â¬â¢t even out. Cleary, animal testing needs to be put to a halting stop. Animals and humans are very much alike. Infact, this is one of the reasons we test on them, because our bodies are very similar. Animals and humans share emotions, including sadness, happiness, and fear. As much alike as we are, there are things that set us apart. One being that they are treated much more poorly than humans. Just because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have rights, doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean it is acceptable to test on them . Ã¢â¬Å"The question is not, Can they reason? nor, Can they talk? but Can they suffer?Ã¢â¬ Jeremy Bentham states, perhaps with an opinion that animals can feel the same emotions as humans. I agree with this statement, knowing that animals also have a heart.The simple fact they cannot talk should not determine their fate. Imagine the roles reversed. You are the animals, and they are human.You donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a say in what you can and canÃ¢â¬â¢t do. In addition, you areShow MoreRelatedHorrors of Animal Testing Essay657 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesAnimal testing for human safety is inhumane and must be banned. Beloved house pets such as rodents, rabbits and even dogs are being tested on all over the world. These powerless and voiceless animals are intentionally given dreadful diseases to find cures while scientists could be finding alternative ways of testing instead of using our furry friends. Furthermore, the tests are not precise because there have been products found to cause cancer in animals but also cures human ailments. Why are humansRead More Horrors of Animal Research, Testing, and Experimentation Essay1648 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Horrors of Animal Testing Ã The torture and murder of millions of animals annually has been occurring for centuries now. Every year we ignore it, and every year the numbers grow. The act of vivisection or the practice of experimenting on animals began because of religious prohibitions against dissection of human corpses. After religious leaders lifted these prohibitions, it was too late. Vivisection had become a major part of medical and educational research. As well as major part of productRead MoreAnimals Is Inhumane, And Animal Testing853 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFollowing along, testing on animals is inhumane, and animal testing, an unbearable act, is universally unwanted by all. Not just animal lovers peering in through the outside disapprove or have a disliking for the tests, but also those from within (and not just the animals) have a distaste for the tests too. Animal testing may hope to advance humans (and lifestyles), whilst preventing or delaying deaths and unnecessarily assuring a cosmeticÃ¢â¬â¢s sa fety, but (ironically) at the expense or reverse ofRead MoreAnimal Experimentation Essay812 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesyears now people have been using animal experimentation to create new ways to help save the human race. There are people who believe that it does help, and that it is necessary to continue, while others oppose and want to fight for the elimination of animal experimentation. Scientists fight for the cures needed to help man kind, but struggle to do so as people fight against their work in progress. But as Jennifer A. Hurley stated, Ã¢â¬Å"History has already shown that animal experimentation is not essentialRead MoreShould We Still Be Using Animals As Our Test Subjects?942 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesShould we still be using animals as our test subjects in 2014? Some people say animal testing is good because it helps us find cures to serious illnesses, but in fact the chances of a cure which works on humans has a very slim success to failure ratio. The best DNA match for human s are humans themselves. I strongly believe that we should not be testing on animals and should be using alternative testing methods such as in vitro (test tube) or in silico (computer modelling). One of the main reasonsRead MoreAnimal Testing Is Morally Wrong? Essay1373 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHumans are animals, and as such it is morally wrong to use them to test pharmaceuticals intended for use by humans. Those who support animal experimentation believe it is a necessary evil, in part due to the false information put out by the media. The so-called benefits of animal testing have not helped humans for years, yet in many countries the law still requires researchers use animals to test their medications. In fact, although alternatives have been found, few steps have been taken to put anRead MoreAnimal Testing Is Morally Wrong? Essay1305 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSeeing as humans are animals it is morally wrong to use animals to test human products. Due to the false information put out by the media, those who support animal believe what the media states about it being a necessary evil. The so-called benefits from animal testing have not helped humans for years, but is now legally re quired in many countries. Although alternatives have been found, few steps have been taken to put an end to animal experimentation. The way activists present their argument isRead MorePersuasive Essay On Animal Testing1521 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmillion animals are killed each year in the name of animal testing. Now as some might say that sacrifice is needed for the common good, it is safe to say that animal testing may be taking it over the top to get such test results for the common good. Animal testing has been a common practice for many years to get results and side effects for food, drugs, pesticides, beauty products, and just about everything one uses in an average day. But now, in the modern world where ethics and animals rightsRead MoreAnimal Testing Is An Act Of Animal Cruelty952 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmillions of animals are stuck inside cold, locked cages in laboratories across the country. They dwindle in pain, throb with loneliness, and yearn to roam free and use their ow n minds. Instead, all they do is lie and wait in despair for the next terrifying and agonizing operation that is to be performed on them. They shudder and wince in fear whenever someone walks past their cage. After surviving lives of pain, isolation, and horror, near to all of them will be killed. Although animal testing bringsRead MoreVivisection Essay example1710 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEvery year in the USA about 70 million animals are experimented on (Monamy 34). Almost all these animals are euthanized after they are no longer needed. But IÃ¢â¬â¢m not going to focus on the moral aspect of this subject because that would be a never ending argument of opinions. After doing research I found that there are more important reasons why this practice should be modified. Our governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s dependence on vivisection should be toned down or totally replaced because it is misleading, its faulty
Motivation theory Ã¢â¬Å"Crompton (1979) notes it is possible to describe the who, when, where, and how of tourism, together with the social and economic characteristics of tourist, but not to answer the question Ã¢â¬Å"why,Ã¢â¬ the most interesting question of all tourist behaviour. Ã¢â¬ (Fodness 1994, p. 556) While motivation is only one of many variables in explaining tourist behaviour, it is nonethelessÃ a very critical one, as it constitutes the driving force behind all behaviour (Fodness 1994). We will write a custom essay sample on Motivation Theory: Explaining Tourist Behavior or any similar topic only for you Order Now Motivation sets the stage for forming peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s goals (Mansfeld 2000) and is reflected in both travel choice and behaviour; as such it influences peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations, which in turn determine the perception of experiences. Motivation is therefore a factor in satisfaction formation (Gnoth 1997). Basic motivation theory suggests a dynamic process of internal psychological factors (needs, wants and goals), causing an uncomfortable level of tension within individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ minds and bodies, resulting in actions aimed at releasing that tension and satisfying these needs (Fodness 1994).Motives, implying such an action, require the awareness of needs, as well as objectives, promising to satisfy these now conscious needs in order to create wants and move people to buy (Goosens 2000). Objectives or goals are presented in the form of products and services, it is therefore the role of marketing to create awareness of needs and suggest appropriate objectives, promising the satisfaction of these (Mill and Morrison 1985). Several authors suggest (Dumazedier 1967, Krippendorf 1987, Parker 1983) that in the Western World free time and holidays are connected to the concept of self-actualisation or self-realisation.The latter defined by Grunow-Lutter (1983. p. 76) as Ã¢â¬Å"a personÃ¢â¬â ¢s dynamic relationship between the real and the ideal self, constituting a process of decreasing the distance between these two cognitive systems, themselves subject to continuous change. Ã¢â¬ It is the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s aim to achieve a state of stability, or homeostasis (Goosens 2000), which is disrupted when the person becomes aware of the gap between real and ideal self, or as Goosens calls it a need deficiency. The resulting need to self-actualise represents the motive, which under the constraints of the situation sets the stage for the process of motivation (Gnoth 1997).But to what extent does tourism satisfy the intrinsic need for self-actualisation? Tinsley and Eldredge (1995) summarise 15 years of research into psychological needs, satisfied by leisure activities, and proposed leisure activities clusters such as novelty, sensual enjoyment, cognitive stimulation, self-expression, creativity, vicarious competition, relaxation, agency, belongingness and service. It is questioned however; whether these superficial needs are intrinsically motivated (Goosens 2000, p. 303), suggesting that these motivations are merely culturally learned stereotypes or explanat ions for leisure behaviour.As Fodness (1994) states, a widely accepted integrated theory for needs and goals behind motivation is lacking. The question is of course why this is the case. Research into motivation can be distinguished into two categories, the behaviourist and the cognivist approach (Gnoth 1997). The discussion has therefore traditionally revolved around either push or pull factors influencing tourist behaviour (Crompton 1979). Push factors represent lasting dispositions, as they are internally generated drives. The individual, energised by such drives, will then search objects for the promise of drive reduction and develop a motive (Gnoth 1997).The behaviourist view thus emphasises the emotional parameter of decision-making, while the cognivist approach focuses on situational parameters in which motives are expressed, consequently encompassing a certain knowledge which the tourist holds about goal attributes as well as a rational weighing up of situational constraints (Gnoth 1997). This cognitive process results in motivations, which are more object specific than motives, as these only imply a class of objects and may result in a range of different be haviours, depending on the situation.This unidimensional approach has been criticised however (Pearce 1993, Parinello 1993), as push and pull factors influence the consumer simultaneously (Hirschman and Holbrook 1986), integrated by the concept of involvement, an unobservable state of motivation, arousal, or interest (Goosens 2000), which is evoked by stimulus or situations. This is the case, since pull factors such as marketing stimuli as well as the destinationÃ¢â¬â¢s and serviceÃ¢â¬â¢s attributes respond to and reinforce push factors.Consequently research increasingly seeks to integrate emotions and cognition in the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s decision-making process (Hartmann 1982, Pearce and Caltabiano 1983, Braun 1989, Gnoth 1997), indicating a more holistic approach. As a result it became evident that peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s intrinsic needs are influenced by external factors. Rojek (1990) asserts that in post-modern society the superstructure of advertising, television, fashion, lifestyle magazines and designer values increasingly take the role of forming knowledge and beliefs.PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s needs are neutral (Heckhausen 1989), as motives however, they require an object towards which the need is directed, and when linked to actual situations, cultural and social impacts are also applied (Gnoth 1997). Situations raise motives to the level of values, as such they are evaluations based on learned behaviour and perception (Lewin 1942, Vroom 1964). If a drive is reduced satisfactorily the individual is likely to remember the behaviour and employ the same behaviour again, thus acquiring habits (Hull 1943). Tourism experiences may therefore become learned behaviour and acquire the role of habit enforcers. Cognivists argue that knowledge and beliefs in future rewards, anticipatory in nature (Vroom 1964), are equally a product of formerly encountered situations (Murray 1938), and external formation. It may be concluded that motives merely represent learned behaviour, which are influenced by offered objects or tourism activities, while motivations represent knowledge and beliefs formed by society and culture or tourism marketers.The psychogenic need for self-actualisation, abstract in nature, is therefore operationalised in a learned and practical manner and expressed in values, which are learned strategies to either adapt oneÃ¢â¬â¢s environment to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s needs or adapt oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self to a given environment (Kahle 1983). Such values equally include effects of enculturation and socialisation (Fodness 1994). Furthermore the perceived gap between real and ideal self, may indicate b oth externally and internally controlled evaluations (Gnoth 1997).McCabe therefore asks what researchers can expect to know about individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ drives, by asking them about their motivations and needs as these may not be available to individuals as part of their consciousness (2000a, p. 215). Iso-Ahola (1982) states that Ã¢â¬Å"people do not walk around with numerous leisure needs in their minds and do not rationalise specific causes of participation if their involvement is intrinsically motivatedÃ¢â¬ (cited in Goosens 2000, p. 303). Hence it may be assumed that needs are suggested by mmediate social peers, and the wider context of particular social realities as well as the influence of the media (McCabe 2000a). Yet as Weissinger and Bandalos (1995) stress, intrinsic leisure motivation, which is a global disposition and describes a tendency to seek intrinsic rewards, is characterised by self-determination, an awareness of internal needs and a strong desire to make free choices based on these needs. While self-actualisation may be accepted as a need intrinsic to all individuals, society exercises a great deal of influence on the formation of the ideal self and thus perceived needs.However the notion of authentic or true self, determined by way of experience, offe rs a solution to the predicament. According to Waterman (1984), individualism symbolises four psychological qualities, the first one is a sense of individual identity, based on the knowledge of who one is and what oneÃ¢â¬â¢s goals and values are, as such it is related to the philosophical concept of true self, which indicates what an individual reckons personally expressive and what it is to be actualised (p. 30).The second is MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s self-actualisation, which is the driving to be oneÃ¢â¬â¢s true self. The third quality is RotterÃ¢â¬â¢s (1966) internal locus of control, which reflects a willingness to accept personal responsibility for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life, and finally prinicipled (postconventional), moral reasoning (Kohlberg 1969), which involves consistency with general abstract principles (cited in Kim and Lee 2000, p. 156). Consequently, only ifÃ tourists become more autonomous and thus aware of intrinsic needs and motives are they able to self-actualise.As McIntosh and Goeldner (1990) explained, o rder is becoming less important in Western society and a desire for disorder in the tourism experience is becoming more important. Kim and Lee point out that Ã¢â¬Å"opportunities for unplanned action and freedom from institutionalised regulations are distinctive of Western touristsÃ¢â¬ (2000, p. 157). This indicates that tourists exhibit a certain desire to liberate their identities. According to Krippendorf (1984), in order for tourists to cease being just users of holidays, they must come to know themselves, their motives and other cultures.It may therefore be assumed that self-actualisation is an intrinsic need, characteristic of any tourist, but must be understood in terms of true self as opposed to ideal self and as such is independent of societal pressures and involves the transcendence of habitual behaviours and mindstates. This proposition requires further elaboration and must be viewed in the context of modernity, which hinders this process but at the same time brought about its awareness. How to cite Motivation Theory: Explaining Tourist Behavior, Papers
Sunday, April 26, 2020
(2012, 07). a Study of Brand Loyalty Towards the Organized Retail Stores. Studymode.Com. Retrieved 07, 2012, from Http //Www.Studymode.Com/Essays/a-Study-of-Brand-Loyalty-Towards-1045943.Html Essay Example
(2012, 07). a Study of Brand Loyalty Towards the Organized Retail Stores. Studymode.Com. Retrieved 07, 2012, from Http: //Www.Studymode.Com/Essays/a-Study-of-Brand-Loyalty-Towards-1045943.Html Essay Insights into Indian English Fiction and Drama Edited by Capt. Dr. Arvind M. Nawale Access -An Academic Consortium Publication ISBN No. 978-81-921254-3-5 Aspects of Campus Novel in Makarand ParanjapeÃ¢â¬â¢s The Narrator: A Novel Shridevi P. G. The Narrator: A Novel is the well-known critic Makarand ParanjapeÃ¢â¬â¢s debut novel, published in 1995. It is a mishmash of several stories woven together and presented to us from view-points of several writer-narrators or character- narrators. This novel has attracted considerable interest in the academicians because of the unique narratology of the novel which is different from the rest of the Indian novels written in English. The novel is experimental, and breaks away from the conventional methods of story-telling used in Indian English Fiction. Throughout the narrative, the readers notice that there is little attempt to create an illusion of realism or naturalism. 1 With the use of multivoiced and polyphonic narration, as in the great epics Ramayana and Mahabharata, the writer tries to relocate himself with the ancient Indian tradition of the narratology. The story of the novel can be divided into three main threads: The first is the story of Rahul Patwardhan, lecturer in English at Asafia University, Hyderabad who is suffering from creative schizophrenia since his childhood and, in the process has a libidinal alter ego, Baddy. The second is the story of Badrinath Dhanda, who comes out of Rahul through emanation. The fi nal thread is that of the movie script, Manpasand. Campus novel is a kind of novel which originated in the West but is emerging as a very prominent sub-genre in Indian English Fiction. We will write a custom essay sample on (2012, 07). a Study of Brand Loyalty Towards the Organized Retail Stores. Studymode.Com. Retrieved 07, 2012, from Http: //Www.Studymode.Com/Essays/a-Study-of-Brand-Loyalty-Towards-1045943.Html specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on (2012, 07). a Study of Brand Loyalty Towards the Organized Retail Stores. Studymode.Com. Retrieved 07, 2012, from Http: //Www.Studymode.Com/Essays/a-Study-of-Brand-Loyalty-Towards-1045943.Html specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on (2012, 07). a Study of Brand Loyalty Towards the Organized Retail Stores. Studymode.Com. Retrieved 07, 2012, from Http: //Www.Studymode.Com/Essays/a-Study-of-Brand-Loyalty-Towards-1045943.Html specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer As David Lodge, a well-known practitioner of this sub-genre opines, Campus Novel is mainly concerned with the lives of University professors and junior teachers. 3 The present paper attempts to explore the aspects of campus novel in this novel. The novel centers around Rahul Patwardhan who is a lecturer in English at the Asafia University, Hyderabad. His reputation as a lecturer is displayed when he meets his Head of the Department in the novel. The Head of the Department does not doubt him when he lies; asking for leave for four days on the pretext of illness and reading accepts it. This is because, this type of aberration was a recent development in RahulÃ¢â¬â¢s character, and is therefore unknown to the Head of Department. The author presents the characteristics of a good lecturer through Rahul PatwardhanÃ¢â¬â¢s character. He is responsible about his duties as a lecturer: Ã¢â¬ ¦. tomorrow was Monday. I had to teach. It was the beginning of a new week. I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t afford to have a very late night today. But meeting him tomorrow would screw up TuesdayÃ¢â¬â¢s schedule. [TNAN 67] His anxiety to complete the syllabus is also depicted in the novel. He abstains from listening to the gory details of incest when Badrinath is narrating his story. When Badri goes on describing how the ugly women are better partners then the beautiful ones, Rahul is unable to contribute his view as he is a loyal husband to Neha and thus had slept only with her. It is the curiosity generated in him by his literary sensibility or on humanitarian inclination that he expresses his wish of meeting prostitutes. He thinks, What were these women like? What did they feel? What was the meaning of their livesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦I was interested in getting to see them at close quarters. I told myself I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want the sex, but only the experience of meeting a prostitute, of talking to her, getting to know her. [ TNAN 168] Rahul immediately revolts at BadriÃ¢â¬â¢s mention of co-habition with college girls. Ã¢â¬Å"For heavenÃ¢â¬â¢s sake, Badri, I teach them myselfÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"You never knowÃ¢â¬ , he continued, Ã¢â¬Å"you may even meet one of your students! Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Please, Badri, stop itÃ¢â¬ . [TNAN 168] This conversation indicates RahulÃ¢â¬â¢s strong professional ethics. He has also followed certain principles in life which are unfortunately jettisoned after his acquaintance with Badri. He leaves a lot of food on his table, much against his principle of not wasting food He starts lying and finds people believing it easily He consumes beer He cohabits with a prostitute. This shows that he had been morally corrupted to a certain extent. This task of corrupting Rahul had been attempted several times by Baddy but all of them had been found fruitless. But years later Badri proves successful in this. The Novel sketches RahulÃ¢â¬â¢s academic progress and his strict regimen for his Ph. D. , degree quite conspicuously. He would religiously enter the library every morning and work till the evening, often skipping his lunch. Sometimes, I wondered if I would ever get out of the library alive. I mean, I was losing all sense of time. I thought to myself that one day they would find my bones in the musty corridors, resting somewhere among the shelves full of books. [TNAN 75] He describes his guide as a Ã¢â¬Ëcool guyÃ¢â¬â¢ whose motto was Ã¢â¬Å"Do what you like, but show me the final draft within five yearsÃ¢â¬ . [TNAN 75] The under note of sarcasm does not go unnoticed in this line which highlights the negligence or failure of some guides to train their research scholars. The procedure of Ph. D. degree is also briefly explained. He says, Ã¢â¬Å"My five years in Hyderabad passed. I submitted my thesis in October 1986; the viva was held next year in AprilÃ¢â¬ . [TNAN 75] The whole description of this kind reminds one of Saros CowasjeeÃ¢â¬â¢s novel Goodbye to Elsa where similar kind of description of the research methodology is found. Rahul also writes an introductory guide to fiction entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Indian English Fiction Ã¢â¬â Theory and PracticeÃ¢â¬ the first 500 copies of which are sold out in six months and it then goes into second edition. The relation between colleagues also forms an important aspect of the campus. Here this is displayed through RahulÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with Raghavan. Their addressing each other with abusive words indicates their intimacy. Both were doing doctoral research. Though Rahul is younger of the two, he had got the job before Raghavan and thus was technically senior to him and which made Raghavan grumble. Ã¢â¬Å"We were, in a sense, rivals, but had never stopped being friendsÃ¢â¬ . [TNAN 148] One interesting point found here is the absence of professional jealousy which is very common among colleagues and which is found in most of the campus novels like M. K. NaikÃ¢â¬â¢s Corridors of Knowledge, Ranga RaoÃ¢â¬â¢s The Drunk Tantra, Rita JoshiÃ¢â¬â¢s The Awakening Ã¢â¬âA Novella in Rhyme. Students are the inevitable and the most significant aspect of campus novels. Even in this novel, the behavior and misadventures of students are pictured in an amiable way. Rahul presents two sets of students Ã¢â¬â his classmates when he was studying and his students, after he becomes a lecturer. Rahul joins Tambaram College, which had a history of 150 years but had become a semiwild campus with the kind of behavior of the students. Music and drugs were the two things which dominated the college. Ã¢â¬Å"Bunking classes, acting wild, breaking rules, and doing the unconventional thing were considered hip. There was nothing worse than being a good boy; it was the most despicable way to liveÃ¢â¬ . [ TNAN 55-56] The students think of themselves as the lost generation, IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s equivalent of the hippies. The senior students spent most of their time smoking and listening to music. The mention of a Ã¢â¬Ëdrunken brawlÃ¢â¬â¢ among students is made in such a way that it is not very uncommon in colleges. In one such quarrel a student was stabbed. An instance of suicide committed by a student is also pictured. He had consumed downers and jumped off the top floor of the International StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Hostel because he had stolen a large sum of money from one of his friends and had blown it all on drugs. With these instances the novelist seems to be indicating the lack of discipline and control among the students. The novelist then describes the drinking bouts of the students and the way they acquired booze. The first of the two ways of getting booze was through someone in the Air Force Station which was quite near the college. When this became much difficult by the Commanding OfficerÃ¢â¬â¢s instructions, the students were left with the second and the more strenuous way. The students would travel five long hours to Pondicherry and would lounge about the beaches the whole day, drinking and chattering continuously on all sorts of topics. They would then take the night bus back with one or two bottles of rum with them. They would try to trick the cops by using a very cheap bag and keeping it away from themselves. So that even in a surprise check they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t get caught. And if by chance they get caught redhanded, they would simply give it away to the cop so that he would let them go. The students did not even hesitate to start Ã¢â¬ËvisitingÃ¢â¬â¢- a word used by the author for visiting a prostitute. And they were available right outside the college gates after dark. About affairs, the writer says that only rich guys could afford them by giving expensive gifts to the Ã¢â¬ËchicksÃ¢â¬â¢ from the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s college. Love affairs are an indispensable aspect of the campus and so forms one of the aspects of campus novel. But most of the campus novels exhibit a very frank treatment of sex. few examples are- Saros CowasjeeÃ¢â¬â¢s Goodbye to Elsa, K. M. TrishankuÃ¢â¬â¢s Onion Peel, Rani DharkerÃ¢â¬â¢s The Virgin Syndrome, etc. The Narrator also depicts sex quite freely. The novel abounds in extramarital relationships, child abuse, incest, sodomy, mental adultery, voluptuousness and pure love. RahulÃ¢â¬â¢s students are brought in only in on e scene but this one episode reveals a lot about the students of the present generation. When Rahul enters 15 minutes late to the class, giving the reason that he had a late night, some students titter taking his words as an indication of a private encounter. Many students had left for coffee not to return to the class. Their lack of patience and audacity is expressed in the words-Ã¢â¬Å"Oh Sir, they went of for coffee when you didnÃ¢â¬â¢t show up until ten-fifteenÃ¢â¬ . [TNAN 96] and todayÃ¢â¬â¢s teachers also seem to accept this kind of behavior. The novel can also be considered Crit-Fiction. Ã¢â¬Å"Crit-FictionÃ¢â¬ is a kind of novel which is written by a lecturer or a professor. In the recent years many professors have started writing novels. A few examples of such Indian writers are Manju Kapoor, M. K. Naik, Amitav Ghosh, Anita Desai, Meena Alexander and others. As Elaine Showalter puts it, the novelist before writing his novel should create or imagine a world which has some kind of logical relation to the real world, within which he can explore the themes that interest him through the narrative. The university or college provides such a world ready-made Ã¢â¬â a small world which is a kind of microcosm of the larger world. An authorÃ¢â¬â¢s writing will be realistic if it is inspired by his experience. The author Makarand Paranjape has been able to write about the campus so lucidly because he was a professor and has the first-hand information about the aspects of campus. It is quite interesting that in the novel The Narrator, the protagonist, Rahul Patwardhan is also a lecturer and he too is a writer. Finally one cannot afford to overlook the very unique and exalting theme of the novel which is the difficulty of writing a work of art. Rahul had such an extensive knowledge about the narratology or the art of the narrative, that he had become an inhibiting influence on Baddy, the other half of his split personality, as he shot down BaddyÃ¢â¬â¢s attempts of writing narratives. I knew too bloody much about the theory to let even my imagination do the actual writing. TNAN 75] He discusses his difficulty with Dr. Jenny OÃ¢â¬â¢Sullivan, a visiting British Council scholar, who had come to visit Hyderabad, researching on a book to be set in India. I am too critical; I cannot get to put pen to paper without scratching out what IÃ¢â¬â¢ve written. [TNAN 258] By OÃ¢â¬â¢SullivanÃ¢â¬â¢s suggestion, he finds out the solution: Every attempt at creation is f ounded upon a similar act of deconstruction. Writing, thus, is a cruel activity. Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Before one writes one had to give birth to a writing self. This is the self which will then invent characters, situations, and themes. [ TNAN 269] The novel The Narrator: A Novel has many aspects of campus novel in it like the kind of life lead by a lecturer, his loyalty and involvement in his academic pursuits, his struggle to produce substantial literary works, his relations with his colleagues and students; the behavior of the students, their misadventures; the lavish lifestyles of students who are not disciplined either by the parents or the authorities in the college, their love affairs etc. re delineated in a very conducive way. The protagonistÃ¢â¬â¢s views both as a student and then as a lecturer are involved in the novel. Makarand Paranjape has been able to throw sufficient light on all these aspects of campus life as he has been a professor and very well-acquainted with the campus. So with the points discussed so far, The Narrator: A Novel can be considered a campus novel. Works Cited 1. Rahul Chaturvedi, Ã¢â¬Å"Self as Narrative in The Narrator: A Novel: A Narratological PerspectiveÃ¢â¬ , The Criterion: An International Journal in English, ISSN 0976-8165 Vol. II. -Issue 1, 2011. 2. http://www. makarand. com/reviews/ReviewsofTheNarrator. html. 3. http://is. muni. cz/th/66512/ff_b/Bakalarska_prace_24. 4. 2006. doc 4. Makarand Paranjape, The Narrator: A Novel, (New Delhi: Rupa Co. 1995), Hereafter cited as TNAN with page nos. in parentheses. 5. Showalter, Elaine- Faculty Towers: The Academic Novel and its Discontents; Oxford University Press, 2005.