Thursday, May 21, 2020
We live in a society that is not very accepting of individual differences. There is always a norm to strive towards. But what happens if one is unable to meet these norms due to physical or mental impairment? Those who are affected by impairments are treated differently by typical-abled members of society, stigmatized, stereotyped, or pitied, all of which can make one feel subhuman. The way that our society reacts to individuals with physical and mental impairments is what causes them to be disabled. Disability is a social problem that hinders the flourishing of those affected by impairments. There are numerous ways that a person can be impaired, some appearing to be more severe than others. Some philosophers like Peter Singer argue that being impaired is a harm which requires biomedical intervention to help the individual affected to function in society and prevent them from suffering, and that if given the chance, we should select against disability ; however people affected by impairments have learned to adapt and live with their impairment. They are typically not suffering because they have one, as many assume. According to Barnes, being impaired is only part of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life; it does not necessarily make up the entire global concept their life quality (340). Barnes makes the argument that similar to being homosexual, a person with an impairment life would be harder, but we cannot assume that the person life quality is less than that of an unimpaired person. As anShow MoreRelatedThe Walk By Judith Butler And Sunaura Taylor976 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAfter watching t he documentary Ã¢â¬Å"The WalkÃ¢â¬ with Judith Butler and Sunaura Taylor that we watched in class together as a whole. It made me wonder about how Taylor put the idea of being handicapped as a political meaning, rather than just a social or medical way of living. In the documentary, the two women talk about the vast ways that handicapped people face today in the world. Throughout the semester we have learned how not just handicapped people like Taylor a person with a physical impairment areRead MoreImpaired Nurse667 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesAccording to the American Nurses Association, an impaired nurse is unable to meet the requirements of the code of ethics and standards of practice of the profession. This nurse has cognitive, interpersonal or psychomotor skills affected by psychiatric illness and/or drug or alcohol abuse of addiction (American Nurses Association, 2010). Not only do these nurses create a potential threat to their clients, but they have also neglected to care for t hemselves. A survey has been recorded about theRead MoreThe Class Placement of Students with ADD/ADHD1721 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmany learning impaired students to do worse academically and socially than if they had been placed in an inclusive setting. By definition, ADD/ADHD students that are placed in an inclusive setting are seated in the same classroom with students who do not have ADD/ADHD. ADD/ADHD students receiving special support in regular classes succeed academically and socially more often than ADD/ADHD students in special classes. The variables that affect the academic progress of a learning impaired student withRead MorePublic Awareness of Visually Impaired Persons Communication Skills1304 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPublic Awareness of Visually Impaired Persons Communication Skills It has been observed by the researcher that in public settings often the reaction to a visually impaired person is quite different then to that of a sighted person. Society seems to have a predisposed perception of the communication abilities of visually impaired people. This study hopes to establish a correlation between the perception that visually impaired people are also speech impaired when they are in a setting where theyRead MoreEssay about Students With ADD/ADHD and Class Placement1218 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesother students without learning-disabilities. Consequently, many students with learning disabilities are placed in classrooms that are designated only for students with learning disabilities. It is because of this classroom placement problem that many learning-impaired students are doing worse academically and socially in a non-inclusive setting than in an inclusive one. A non-inclusive setting is when students with learning-impairments like ADD/ADHD are placed in a Ã¢â¬ Å"special classÃ¢â¬ with other learning-impairmentRead MoreComparing And Differences, Louis Braille, Helen Keller, And Stevie Wonder1228 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesaccidental stabbing incident in his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s workshop.Ã¢â¬ (Braille Works). Louis Braille didnÃ¢â¬â¢t let the accident determine the rest of his life, instead became the inventor of braille writing. Braille writing is a series of raised dots for visually impaired individuals to feel instead of seeing the words written out. Helen Keller is a name people hear of often, but is her success story truly known? Ã¢â¬Å"Helen Keller was the first deaf and blind person to graduate from college. Keller then went on to becomeRead MoreConversations about Disability Essay1367 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesworld of norms .Everyone tries to be normal. The focus on construction of disability as on the construction of normalcy .The problem is the way that normalcy is constructed to create the problem of the disabled person .There is an i nherent desire to compare to others .Norm is less a condition of human nature than it is feature of a certain kind of society .The social problem of disabling arrived with industrialisation in 19th century .Disabling was related to nationality, race, gender, criminalityRead MoreWhat Causes Hearing Impairment1064 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesfrom the outside world, communication usually become frustrated for hearing-impaired students when interact with their peer. They showed lower self-awareness, self-management, frustration tolerance and impulsivity in their characteristics. Therefore, it is common to see emotional and social behavior difficulties in hearing-impaired individuals. As a speech and language pathologist, who is going to work with hearing-impaired students in language and communication aspect and likely to be the only goRead More Assistive technology for the blind and visually impaired Essay1321 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesI have chosen to cover is, Ã¢â¬Å"The impacts of assistive t echnology for the blind and visually impaired.Ã¢â¬ I will discuss the benefits and drawbacks to using advanced technology to promote development. I will also look at how assistive technology is being implemented and what effects it has on the visually impaired. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;There are approximately 10 to 11 million blind and visually impaired people in North America, and their visual abilities vary almost as much as their ethnic, racialRead MoreChildren With Disabilities Act ( Ada )1222 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageslaws in place for Deaf individuals. In 1991, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Ã¢â¬â a civil rights law was implemented across the U.S [with four sections] that prohibit discrimination against people with disabilities including deaf and hearing impaired people. The purpose of the ADA is to make sure that people with disabilities have the same rights and opportunities as everyone else. Each section of the ADA Ã¢â¬â employment, government, public accommodations, and telecommunications Ã¢â¬â lists services
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
When you go to your local pharmacy and pick up medicine, do you know what animals have gone through to get it on the shelves? It is something weÃ¢â¬â¢ll never have to imagine going through, so why should animals? Animal testing is not necessary. Animals simply donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a choice if they want to be experimentd on. What makes me angry, is there are alternative methods to testing, so animals donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to suffer. Animals have to endure terrible pain, fear, and loneliness, which is cruel and mean on our part. The pros and cons to testing donÃ¢â¬â¢t even out. Cleary, animal testing needs to be put to a halting stop. Animals and humans are very much alike. Infact, this is one of the reasons we test on them, because our bodies are very similar. Animals and humans share emotions, including sadness, happiness, and fear. As much alike as we are, there are things that set us apart. One being that they are treated much more poorly than humans. Just because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have rights, doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean it is acceptable to test on them . Ã¢â¬Å"The question is not, Can they reason? nor, Can they talk? but Can they suffer?Ã¢â¬ Jeremy Bentham states, perhaps with an opinion that animals can feel the same emotions as humans. I agree with this statement, knowing that animals also have a heart.The simple fact they cannot talk should not determine their fate. Imagine the roles reversed. You are the animals, and they are human.You donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a say in what you can and canÃ¢â¬â¢t do. In addition, you areShow MoreRelatedHorrors of Animal Testing Essay657 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesAnimal testing for human safety is inhumane and must be banned. Beloved house pets such as rodents, rabbits and even dogs are being tested on all over the world. These powerless and voiceless animals are intentionally given dreadful diseases to find cures while scientists could be finding alternative ways of testing instead of using our furry friends. Furthermore, the tests are not precise because there have been products found to cause cancer in animals but also cures human ailments. Why are humansRead More Horrors of Animal Research, Testing, and Experimentation Essay1648 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Horrors of Animal Testing Ã The torture and murder of millions of animals annually has been occurring for centuries now. Every year we ignore it, and every year the numbers grow. The act of vivisection or the practice of experimenting on animals began because of religious prohibitions against dissection of human corpses. After religious leaders lifted these prohibitions, it was too late. Vivisection had become a major part of medical and educational research. As well as major part of productRead MoreAnimals Is Inhumane, And Animal Testing853 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFollowing along, testing on animals is inhumane, and animal testing, an unbearable act, is universally unwanted by all. Not just animal lovers peering in through the outside disapprove or have a disliking for the tests, but also those from within (and not just the animals) have a distaste for the tests too. Animal testing may hope to advance humans (and lifestyles), whilst preventing or delaying deaths and unnecessarily assuring a cosmeticÃ¢â¬â¢s sa fety, but (ironically) at the expense or reverse ofRead MoreAnimal Experimentation Essay812 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesyears now people have been using animal experimentation to create new ways to help save the human race. There are people who believe that it does help, and that it is necessary to continue, while others oppose and want to fight for the elimination of animal experimentation. Scientists fight for the cures needed to help man kind, but struggle to do so as people fight against their work in progress. But as Jennifer A. Hurley stated, Ã¢â¬Å"History has already shown that animal experimentation is not essentialRead MoreShould We Still Be Using Animals As Our Test Subjects?942 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesShould we still be using animals as our test subjects in 2014? Some people say animal testing is good because it helps us find cures to serious illnesses, but in fact the chances of a cure which works on humans has a very slim success to failure ratio. The best DNA match for human s are humans themselves. I strongly believe that we should not be testing on animals and should be using alternative testing methods such as in vitro (test tube) or in silico (computer modelling). One of the main reasonsRead MoreAnimal Testing Is Morally Wrong? Essay1373 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHumans are animals, and as such it is morally wrong to use them to test pharmaceuticals intended for use by humans. Those who support animal experimentation believe it is a necessary evil, in part due to the false information put out by the media. The so-called benefits of animal testing have not helped humans for years, yet in many countries the law still requires researchers use animals to test their medications. In fact, although alternatives have been found, few steps have been taken to put anRead MoreAnimal Testing Is Morally Wrong? Essay1305 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSeeing as humans are animals it is morally wrong to use animals to test human products. Due to the false information put out by the media, those who support animal believe what the media states about it being a necessary evil. The so-called benefits from animal testing have not helped humans for years, but is now legally re quired in many countries. Although alternatives have been found, few steps have been taken to put an end to animal experimentation. The way activists present their argument isRead MorePersuasive Essay On Animal Testing1521 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmillion animals are killed each year in the name of animal testing. Now as some might say that sacrifice is needed for the common good, it is safe to say that animal testing may be taking it over the top to get such test results for the common good. Animal testing has been a common practice for many years to get results and side effects for food, drugs, pesticides, beauty products, and just about everything one uses in an average day. But now, in the modern world where ethics and animals rightsRead MoreAnimal Testing Is An Act Of Animal Cruelty952 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmillions of animals are stuck inside cold, locked cages in laboratories across the country. They dwindle in pain, throb with loneliness, and yearn to roam free and use their ow n minds. Instead, all they do is lie and wait in despair for the next terrifying and agonizing operation that is to be performed on them. They shudder and wince in fear whenever someone walks past their cage. After surviving lives of pain, isolation, and horror, near to all of them will be killed. Although animal testing bringsRead MoreVivisection Essay example1710 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEvery year in the USA about 70 million animals are experimented on (Monamy 34). Almost all these animals are euthanized after they are no longer needed. But IÃ¢â¬â¢m not going to focus on the moral aspect of this subject because that would be a never ending argument of opinions. After doing research I found that there are more important reasons why this practice should be modified. Our governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s dependence on vivisection should be toned down or totally replaced because it is misleading, its faulty
Motivation theory Ã¢â¬Å"Crompton (1979) notes it is possible to describe the who, when, where, and how of tourism, together with the social and economic characteristics of tourist, but not to answer the question Ã¢â¬Å"why,Ã¢â¬ the most interesting question of all tourist behaviour. Ã¢â¬ (Fodness 1994, p. 556) While motivation is only one of many variables in explaining tourist behaviour, it is nonethelessÃ a very critical one, as it constitutes the driving force behind all behaviour (Fodness 1994). We will write a custom essay sample on Motivation Theory: Explaining Tourist Behavior or any similar topic only for you Order Now Motivation sets the stage for forming peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s goals (Mansfeld 2000) and is reflected in both travel choice and behaviour; as such it influences peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations, which in turn determine the perception of experiences. Motivation is therefore a factor in satisfaction formation (Gnoth 1997). Basic motivation theory suggests a dynamic process of internal psychological factors (needs, wants and goals), causing an uncomfortable level of tension within individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ minds and bodies, resulting in actions aimed at releasing that tension and satisfying these needs (Fodness 1994).Motives, implying such an action, require the awareness of needs, as well as objectives, promising to satisfy these now conscious needs in order to create wants and move people to buy (Goosens 2000). Objectives or goals are presented in the form of products and services, it is therefore the role of marketing to create awareness of needs and suggest appropriate objectives, promising the satisfaction of these (Mill and Morrison 1985). Several authors suggest (Dumazedier 1967, Krippendorf 1987, Parker 1983) that in the Western World free time and holidays are connected to the concept of self-actualisation or self-realisation.The latter defined by Grunow-Lutter (1983. p. 76) as Ã¢â¬Å"a personÃ¢â¬â ¢s dynamic relationship between the real and the ideal self, constituting a process of decreasing the distance between these two cognitive systems, themselves subject to continuous change. Ã¢â¬ It is the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s aim to achieve a state of stability, or homeostasis (Goosens 2000), which is disrupted when the person becomes aware of the gap between real and ideal self, or as Goosens calls it a need deficiency. The resulting need to self-actualise represents the motive, which under the constraints of the situation sets the stage for the process of motivation (Gnoth 1997).But to what extent does tourism satisfy the intrinsic need for self-actualisation? Tinsley and Eldredge (1995) summarise 15 years of research into psychological needs, satisfied by leisure activities, and proposed leisure activities clusters such as novelty, sensual enjoyment, cognitive stimulation, self-expression, creativity, vicarious competition, relaxation, agency, belongingness and service. It is questioned however; whether these superficial needs are intrinsically motivated (Goosens 2000, p. 303), suggesting that these motivations are merely culturally learned stereotypes or explanat ions for leisure behaviour.As Fodness (1994) states, a widely accepted integrated theory for needs and goals behind motivation is lacking. The question is of course why this is the case. Research into motivation can be distinguished into two categories, the behaviourist and the cognivist approach (Gnoth 1997). The discussion has therefore traditionally revolved around either push or pull factors influencing tourist behaviour (Crompton 1979). Push factors represent lasting dispositions, as they are internally generated drives. The individual, energised by such drives, will then search objects for the promise of drive reduction and develop a motive (Gnoth 1997).The behaviourist view thus emphasises the emotional parameter of decision-making, while the cognivist approach focuses on situational parameters in which motives are expressed, consequently encompassing a certain knowledge which the tourist holds about goal attributes as well as a rational weighing up of situational constraints (Gnoth 1997). This cognitive process results in motivations, which are more object specific than motives, as these only imply a class of objects and may result in a range of different be haviours, depending on the situation.This unidimensional approach has been criticised however (Pearce 1993, Parinello 1993), as push and pull factors influence the consumer simultaneously (Hirschman and Holbrook 1986), integrated by the concept of involvement, an unobservable state of motivation, arousal, or interest (Goosens 2000), which is evoked by stimulus or situations. This is the case, since pull factors such as marketing stimuli as well as the destinationÃ¢â¬â¢s and serviceÃ¢â¬â¢s attributes respond to and reinforce push factors.Consequently research increasingly seeks to integrate emotions and cognition in the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s decision-making process (Hartmann 1982, Pearce and Caltabiano 1983, Braun 1989, Gnoth 1997), indicating a more holistic approach. As a result it became evident that peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s intrinsic needs are influenced by external factors. Rojek (1990) asserts that in post-modern society the superstructure of advertising, television, fashion, lifestyle magazines and designer values increasingly take the role of forming knowledge and beliefs.PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s needs are neutral (Heckhausen 1989), as motives however, they require an object towards which the need is directed, and when linked to actual situations, cultural and social impacts are also applied (Gnoth 1997). Situations raise motives to the level of values, as such they are evaluations based on learned behaviour and perception (Lewin 1942, Vroom 1964). If a drive is reduced satisfactorily the individual is likely to remember the behaviour and employ the same behaviour again, thus acquiring habits (Hull 1943). Tourism experiences may therefore become learned behaviour and acquire the role of habit enforcers. Cognivists argue that knowledge and beliefs in future rewards, anticipatory in nature (Vroom 1964), are equally a product of formerly encountered situations (Murray 1938), and external formation. It may be concluded that motives merely represent learned behaviour, which are influenced by offered objects or tourism activities, while motivations represent knowledge and beliefs formed by society and culture or tourism marketers.The psychogenic need for self-actualisation, abstract in nature, is therefore operationalised in a learned and practical manner and expressed in values, which are learned strategies to either adapt oneÃ¢â¬â¢s environment to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s needs or adapt oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self to a given environment (Kahle 1983). Such values equally include effects of enculturation and socialisation (Fodness 1994). Furthermore the perceived gap between real and ideal self, may indicate b oth externally and internally controlled evaluations (Gnoth 1997).McCabe therefore asks what researchers can expect to know about individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ drives, by asking them about their motivations and needs as these may not be available to individuals as part of their consciousness (2000a, p. 215). Iso-Ahola (1982) states that Ã¢â¬Å"people do not walk around with numerous leisure needs in their minds and do not rationalise specific causes of participation if their involvement is intrinsically motivatedÃ¢â¬ (cited in Goosens 2000, p. 303). Hence it may be assumed that needs are suggested by mmediate social peers, and the wider context of particular social realities as well as the influence of the media (McCabe 2000a). Yet as Weissinger and Bandalos (1995) stress, intrinsic leisure motivation, which is a global disposition and describes a tendency to seek intrinsic rewards, is characterised by self-determination, an awareness of internal needs and a strong desire to make free choices based on these needs. While self-actualisation may be accepted as a need intrinsic to all individuals, society exercises a great deal of influence on the formation of the ideal self and thus perceived needs.However the notion of authentic or true self, determined by way of experience, offe rs a solution to the predicament. According to Waterman (1984), individualism symbolises four psychological qualities, the first one is a sense of individual identity, based on the knowledge of who one is and what oneÃ¢â¬â¢s goals and values are, as such it is related to the philosophical concept of true self, which indicates what an individual reckons personally expressive and what it is to be actualised (p. 30).The second is MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s self-actualisation, which is the driving to be oneÃ¢â¬â¢s true self. The third quality is RotterÃ¢â¬â¢s (1966) internal locus of control, which reflects a willingness to accept personal responsibility for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life, and finally prinicipled (postconventional), moral reasoning (Kohlberg 1969), which involves consistency with general abstract principles (cited in Kim and Lee 2000, p. 156). Consequently, only ifÃ tourists become more autonomous and thus aware of intrinsic needs and motives are they able to self-actualise.As McIntosh and Goeldner (1990) explained, o rder is becoming less important in Western society and a desire for disorder in the tourism experience is becoming more important. Kim and Lee point out that Ã¢â¬Å"opportunities for unplanned action and freedom from institutionalised regulations are distinctive of Western touristsÃ¢â¬ (2000, p. 157). This indicates that tourists exhibit a certain desire to liberate their identities. According to Krippendorf (1984), in order for tourists to cease being just users of holidays, they must come to know themselves, their motives and other cultures.It may therefore be assumed that self-actualisation is an intrinsic need, characteristic of any tourist, but must be understood in terms of true self as opposed to ideal self and as such is independent of societal pressures and involves the transcendence of habitual behaviours and mindstates. This proposition requires further elaboration and must be viewed in the context of modernity, which hinders this process but at the same time brought about its awareness. How to cite Motivation Theory: Explaining Tourist Behavior, Papers
Sunday, April 26, 2020
(2012, 07). a Study of Brand Loyalty Towards the Organized Retail Stores. Studymode.Com. Retrieved 07, 2012, from Http //Www.Studymode.Com/Essays/a-Study-of-Brand-Loyalty-Towards-1045943.Html Essay Example
(2012, 07). a Study of Brand Loyalty Towards the Organized Retail Stores. Studymode.Com. Retrieved 07, 2012, from Http: //Www.Studymode.Com/Essays/a-Study-of-Brand-Loyalty-Towards-1045943.Html Essay Insights into Indian English Fiction and Drama Edited by Capt. Dr. Arvind M. Nawale Access -An Academic Consortium Publication ISBN No. 978-81-921254-3-5 Aspects of Campus Novel in Makarand ParanjapeÃ¢â¬â¢s The Narrator: A Novel Shridevi P. G. The Narrator: A Novel is the well-known critic Makarand ParanjapeÃ¢â¬â¢s debut novel, published in 1995. It is a mishmash of several stories woven together and presented to us from view-points of several writer-narrators or character- narrators. This novel has attracted considerable interest in the academicians because of the unique narratology of the novel which is different from the rest of the Indian novels written in English. The novel is experimental, and breaks away from the conventional methods of story-telling used in Indian English Fiction. Throughout the narrative, the readers notice that there is little attempt to create an illusion of realism or naturalism. 1 With the use of multivoiced and polyphonic narration, as in the great epics Ramayana and Mahabharata, the writer tries to relocate himself with the ancient Indian tradition of the narratology. The story of the novel can be divided into three main threads: The first is the story of Rahul Patwardhan, lecturer in English at Asafia University, Hyderabad who is suffering from creative schizophrenia since his childhood and, in the process has a libidinal alter ego, Baddy. The second is the story of Badrinath Dhanda, who comes out of Rahul through emanation. The fi nal thread is that of the movie script, Manpasand. Campus novel is a kind of novel which originated in the West but is emerging as a very prominent sub-genre in Indian English Fiction. We will write a custom essay sample on (2012, 07). a Study of Brand Loyalty Towards the Organized Retail Stores. Studymode.Com. Retrieved 07, 2012, from Http: //Www.Studymode.Com/Essays/a-Study-of-Brand-Loyalty-Towards-1045943.Html specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on (2012, 07). a Study of Brand Loyalty Towards the Organized Retail Stores. Studymode.Com. Retrieved 07, 2012, from Http: //Www.Studymode.Com/Essays/a-Study-of-Brand-Loyalty-Towards-1045943.Html specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on (2012, 07). a Study of Brand Loyalty Towards the Organized Retail Stores. Studymode.Com. Retrieved 07, 2012, from Http: //Www.Studymode.Com/Essays/a-Study-of-Brand-Loyalty-Towards-1045943.Html specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer As David Lodge, a well-known practitioner of this sub-genre opines, Campus Novel is mainly concerned with the lives of University professors and junior teachers. 3 The present paper attempts to explore the aspects of campus novel in this novel. The novel centers around Rahul Patwardhan who is a lecturer in English at the Asafia University, Hyderabad. His reputation as a lecturer is displayed when he meets his Head of the Department in the novel. The Head of the Department does not doubt him when he lies; asking for leave for four days on the pretext of illness and reading accepts it. This is because, this type of aberration was a recent development in RahulÃ¢â¬â¢s character, and is therefore unknown to the Head of Department. The author presents the characteristics of a good lecturer through Rahul PatwardhanÃ¢â¬â¢s character. He is responsible about his duties as a lecturer: Ã¢â¬ ¦. tomorrow was Monday. I had to teach. It was the beginning of a new week. I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t afford to have a very late night today. But meeting him tomorrow would screw up TuesdayÃ¢â¬â¢s schedule. [TNAN 67] His anxiety to complete the syllabus is also depicted in the novel. He abstains from listening to the gory details of incest when Badrinath is narrating his story. When Badri goes on describing how the ugly women are better partners then the beautiful ones, Rahul is unable to contribute his view as he is a loyal husband to Neha and thus had slept only with her. It is the curiosity generated in him by his literary sensibility or on humanitarian inclination that he expresses his wish of meeting prostitutes. He thinks, What were these women like? What did they feel? What was the meaning of their livesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦I was interested in getting to see them at close quarters. I told myself I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want the sex, but only the experience of meeting a prostitute, of talking to her, getting to know her. [ TNAN 168] Rahul immediately revolts at BadriÃ¢â¬â¢s mention of co-habition with college girls. Ã¢â¬Å"For heavenÃ¢â¬â¢s sake, Badri, I teach them myselfÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"You never knowÃ¢â¬ , he continued, Ã¢â¬Å"you may even meet one of your students! Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Please, Badri, stop itÃ¢â¬ . [TNAN 168] This conversation indicates RahulÃ¢â¬â¢s strong professional ethics. He has also followed certain principles in life which are unfortunately jettisoned after his acquaintance with Badri. He leaves a lot of food on his table, much against his principle of not wasting food He starts lying and finds people believing it easily He consumes beer He cohabits with a prostitute. This shows that he had been morally corrupted to a certain extent. This task of corrupting Rahul had been attempted several times by Baddy but all of them had been found fruitless. But years later Badri proves successful in this. The Novel sketches RahulÃ¢â¬â¢s academic progress and his strict regimen for his Ph. D. , degree quite conspicuously. He would religiously enter the library every morning and work till the evening, often skipping his lunch. Sometimes, I wondered if I would ever get out of the library alive. I mean, I was losing all sense of time. I thought to myself that one day they would find my bones in the musty corridors, resting somewhere among the shelves full of books. [TNAN 75] He describes his guide as a Ã¢â¬Ëcool guyÃ¢â¬â¢ whose motto was Ã¢â¬Å"Do what you like, but show me the final draft within five yearsÃ¢â¬ . [TNAN 75] The under note of sarcasm does not go unnoticed in this line which highlights the negligence or failure of some guides to train their research scholars. The procedure of Ph. D. degree is also briefly explained. He says, Ã¢â¬Å"My five years in Hyderabad passed. I submitted my thesis in October 1986; the viva was held next year in AprilÃ¢â¬ . [TNAN 75] The whole description of this kind reminds one of Saros CowasjeeÃ¢â¬â¢s novel Goodbye to Elsa where similar kind of description of the research methodology is found. Rahul also writes an introductory guide to fiction entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Indian English Fiction Ã¢â¬â Theory and PracticeÃ¢â¬ the first 500 copies of which are sold out in six months and it then goes into second edition. The relation between colleagues also forms an important aspect of the campus. Here this is displayed through RahulÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with Raghavan. Their addressing each other with abusive words indicates their intimacy. Both were doing doctoral research. Though Rahul is younger of the two, he had got the job before Raghavan and thus was technically senior to him and which made Raghavan grumble. Ã¢â¬Å"We were, in a sense, rivals, but had never stopped being friendsÃ¢â¬ . [TNAN 148] One interesting point found here is the absence of professional jealousy which is very common among colleagues and which is found in most of the campus novels like M. K. NaikÃ¢â¬â¢s Corridors of Knowledge, Ranga RaoÃ¢â¬â¢s The Drunk Tantra, Rita JoshiÃ¢â¬â¢s The Awakening Ã¢â¬âA Novella in Rhyme. Students are the inevitable and the most significant aspect of campus novels. Even in this novel, the behavior and misadventures of students are pictured in an amiable way. Rahul presents two sets of students Ã¢â¬â his classmates when he was studying and his students, after he becomes a lecturer. Rahul joins Tambaram College, which had a history of 150 years but had become a semiwild campus with the kind of behavior of the students. Music and drugs were the two things which dominated the college. Ã¢â¬Å"Bunking classes, acting wild, breaking rules, and doing the unconventional thing were considered hip. There was nothing worse than being a good boy; it was the most despicable way to liveÃ¢â¬ . [ TNAN 55-56] The students think of themselves as the lost generation, IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s equivalent of the hippies. The senior students spent most of their time smoking and listening to music. The mention of a Ã¢â¬Ëdrunken brawlÃ¢â¬â¢ among students is made in such a way that it is not very uncommon in colleges. In one such quarrel a student was stabbed. An instance of suicide committed by a student is also pictured. He had consumed downers and jumped off the top floor of the International StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Hostel because he had stolen a large sum of money from one of his friends and had blown it all on drugs. With these instances the novelist seems to be indicating the lack of discipline and control among the students. The novelist then describes the drinking bouts of the students and the way they acquired booze. The first of the two ways of getting booze was through someone in the Air Force Station which was quite near the college. When this became much difficult by the Commanding OfficerÃ¢â¬â¢s instructions, the students were left with the second and the more strenuous way. The students would travel five long hours to Pondicherry and would lounge about the beaches the whole day, drinking and chattering continuously on all sorts of topics. They would then take the night bus back with one or two bottles of rum with them. They would try to trick the cops by using a very cheap bag and keeping it away from themselves. So that even in a surprise check they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t get caught. And if by chance they get caught redhanded, they would simply give it away to the cop so that he would let them go. The students did not even hesitate to start Ã¢â¬ËvisitingÃ¢â¬â¢- a word used by the author for visiting a prostitute. And they were available right outside the college gates after dark. About affairs, the writer says that only rich guys could afford them by giving expensive gifts to the Ã¢â¬ËchicksÃ¢â¬â¢ from the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s college. Love affairs are an indispensable aspect of the campus and so forms one of the aspects of campus novel. But most of the campus novels exhibit a very frank treatment of sex. few examples are- Saros CowasjeeÃ¢â¬â¢s Goodbye to Elsa, K. M. TrishankuÃ¢â¬â¢s Onion Peel, Rani DharkerÃ¢â¬â¢s The Virgin Syndrome, etc. The Narrator also depicts sex quite freely. The novel abounds in extramarital relationships, child abuse, incest, sodomy, mental adultery, voluptuousness and pure love. RahulÃ¢â¬â¢s students are brought in only in on e scene but this one episode reveals a lot about the students of the present generation. When Rahul enters 15 minutes late to the class, giving the reason that he had a late night, some students titter taking his words as an indication of a private encounter. Many students had left for coffee not to return to the class. Their lack of patience and audacity is expressed in the words-Ã¢â¬Å"Oh Sir, they went of for coffee when you didnÃ¢â¬â¢t show up until ten-fifteenÃ¢â¬ . [TNAN 96] and todayÃ¢â¬â¢s teachers also seem to accept this kind of behavior. The novel can also be considered Crit-Fiction. Ã¢â¬Å"Crit-FictionÃ¢â¬ is a kind of novel which is written by a lecturer or a professor. In the recent years many professors have started writing novels. A few examples of such Indian writers are Manju Kapoor, M. K. Naik, Amitav Ghosh, Anita Desai, Meena Alexander and others. As Elaine Showalter puts it, the novelist before writing his novel should create or imagine a world which has some kind of logical relation to the real world, within which he can explore the themes that interest him through the narrative. The university or college provides such a world ready-made Ã¢â¬â a small world which is a kind of microcosm of the larger world. An authorÃ¢â¬â¢s writing will be realistic if it is inspired by his experience. The author Makarand Paranjape has been able to write about the campus so lucidly because he was a professor and has the first-hand information about the aspects of campus. It is quite interesting that in the novel The Narrator, the protagonist, Rahul Patwardhan is also a lecturer and he too is a writer. Finally one cannot afford to overlook the very unique and exalting theme of the novel which is the difficulty of writing a work of art. Rahul had such an extensive knowledge about the narratology or the art of the narrative, that he had become an inhibiting influence on Baddy, the other half of his split personality, as he shot down BaddyÃ¢â¬â¢s attempts of writing narratives. I knew too bloody much about the theory to let even my imagination do the actual writing. TNAN 75] He discusses his difficulty with Dr. Jenny OÃ¢â¬â¢Sullivan, a visiting British Council scholar, who had come to visit Hyderabad, researching on a book to be set in India. I am too critical; I cannot get to put pen to paper without scratching out what IÃ¢â¬â¢ve written. [TNAN 258] By OÃ¢â¬â¢SullivanÃ¢â¬â¢s suggestion, he finds out the solution: Every attempt at creation is f ounded upon a similar act of deconstruction. Writing, thus, is a cruel activity. Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Before one writes one had to give birth to a writing self. This is the self which will then invent characters, situations, and themes. [ TNAN 269] The novel The Narrator: A Novel has many aspects of campus novel in it like the kind of life lead by a lecturer, his loyalty and involvement in his academic pursuits, his struggle to produce substantial literary works, his relations with his colleagues and students; the behavior of the students, their misadventures; the lavish lifestyles of students who are not disciplined either by the parents or the authorities in the college, their love affairs etc. re delineated in a very conducive way. The protagonistÃ¢â¬â¢s views both as a student and then as a lecturer are involved in the novel. Makarand Paranjape has been able to throw sufficient light on all these aspects of campus life as he has been a professor and very well-acquainted with the campus. So with the points discussed so far, The Narrator: A Novel can be considered a campus novel. Works Cited 1. Rahul Chaturvedi, Ã¢â¬Å"Self as Narrative in The Narrator: A Novel: A Narratological PerspectiveÃ¢â¬ , The Criterion: An International Journal in English, ISSN 0976-8165 Vol. II. -Issue 1, 2011. 2. http://www. makarand. com/reviews/ReviewsofTheNarrator. html. 3. http://is. muni. cz/th/66512/ff_b/Bakalarska_prace_24. 4. 2006. doc 4. Makarand Paranjape, The Narrator: A Novel, (New Delhi: Rupa Co. 1995), Hereafter cited as TNAN with page nos. in parentheses. 5. Showalter, Elaine- Faculty Towers: The Academic Novel and its Discontents; Oxford University Press, 2005.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s American family is very different from the typical Ã¢â¬Å"ideal familyÃ¢â¬ that was the norm only half a century ago. Family life in the 1950s consisted of a father who left for work every morning and a loyal mother who stayed at home to tend to her house and the children. This concept is no longer the norm for American households. Families today come in all shape and sizes, and more and more moms are trading in their gardens and cooking utensils for the hustle and bustle of the American work force. Ã¢â¬Å"The number of employed mothers with children under age 18 were 70.1% in 1999, up from to 66.3% in 1990.Ã¢â¬ 11 Are working mothers better than stay-at-home mothers? For many women, the decision to stay at home or work is very frustrating. What if a mother decides to work? For some families, having mom stay at home is not feasible. A second income is necessary to make ends meet. Even if two incomes is not critical, income is not the advantage when a mother works. Health insurance, life insurance, and saving for retirement can persuade a mom to stay at home or work.. When a mother decides to stay at home, she can cut out the hidden expenses of work. These expenses may include business clothes, dry cleaning, gas, expensive lattes from a coffee shop, and overly-priced burgers at a fast food restaurant.. Staying at home will eliminate child care expenses. Depending on what state a family lives in, child care can add up. Ã¢â¬Å"For example, in Ohio the average cost for full-time child care for a 1-year-old is $4,940.Ã¢â¬ 2 An issue that a working mother has to wrestle with is the emotional and physical well-being of her children. She may feel as if she missing out on the most important years of her kidÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. And inevitably, all working moms will miss some of their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s growing years. Nothing is more heart-breaking to a mother than to hear from a day care giver that Billy said Ã¢â¬Å"mommaÃ¢â¬ for the first ti... Free Essays on Stay At Home Moms Free Essays on Stay At Home Moms TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s American family is very different from the typical Ã¢â¬Å"ideal familyÃ¢â¬ that was the norm only half a century ago. Family life in the 1950s consisted of a father who left for work every morning and a loyal mother who stayed at home to tend to her house and the children. This concept is no longer the norm for American households. Families today come in all shape and sizes, and more and more moms are trading in their gardens and cooking utensils for the hustle and bustle of the American work force. Ã¢â¬Å"The number of employed mothers with children under age 18 were 70.1% in 1999, up from to 66.3% in 1990.Ã¢â¬ 11 Are working mothers better than stay-at-home mothers? For many women, the decision to stay at home or work is very frustrating. What if a mother decides to work? For some families, having mom stay at home is not feasible. A second income is necessary to make ends meet. Even if two incomes is not critical, income is not the advantage when a mother works. Health insurance, life insurance, and saving for retirement can persuade a mom to stay at home or work.. When a mother decides to stay at home, she can cut out the hidden expenses of work. These expenses may include business clothes, dry cleaning, gas, expensive lattes from a coffee shop, and overly-priced burgers at a fast food restaurant.. Staying at home will eliminate child care expenses. Depending on what state a family lives in, child care can add up. Ã¢â¬Å"For example, in Ohio the average cost for full-time child care for a 1-year-old is $4,940.Ã¢â¬ 2 An issue that a working mother has to wrestle with is the emotional and physical well-being of her children. She may feel as if she missing out on the most important years of her kidÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. And inevitably, all working moms will miss some of their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s growing years. Nothing is more heart-breaking to a mother than to hear from a day care giver that Billy said Ã¢â¬Å"mommaÃ¢â¬ for the first ti...
Monday, March 2, 2020
Using and Conjugating the Spanish Verb Oler Just as the verb to smell can be used to refer to the act of smelling or the act of producing an odor, so can the Spanish verb oler. But the verbs are used in somewhat different ways in the two languages. Oler comes from the Latin verb olÃâre and is related to a few English words such as olfactory and odor. How To Use Oler Oler is usually used with a direct object when telling what a person or creature smells: Me gusta oler las flores. (I like smelling the flowers.)Mi hermano no podÃ a oler la comida. (My brother couldnt smell his meal.)OlÃ amos el aire fresco del bosque. (We smelled the fresh air of the forest.) Oler can also be used figuratively in the same way: Ã ¡Casi puedo oler la libertad! (I can almost smell freedom!) To describe what something smells like, you can use oler a: El coche olÃ a a gasolina. (The car smelled of gasoline.)Desde que comencÃ © a amamantar a mi bebÃ © siento que huelo a vaca. (Since I started to nurse my baby I have felt that I smell like a cow.)Tu casa huele a tabaco. (Your house smells of tobacco.)No huele a los baratos perfumes. (It doesnt smell like the cheap perfumes.) Again, oler can be used this way figuratively: La casa olÃ a a dinero. (The house smelled of money.) Without an object, oler can refer to the act of smelling: No puedo oler desde hace aÃ ±os. (I havent been able to smell for years.) When used with an indirect-object pronoun, oler can be used to mean to suspect or to seem that when it has that meaning: Me huele que el problema no es de tu ordenador. (It seems to me that the problem isnt with your computer.)A mÃ me huele que fuiste bruja en la vida pasada. (I suspect that you were a witch in your previous life.)Ya le ha olido lo que estamos haciendo. (She already suspects what we were doing.) The reflexive form also can be used to express suspicion: Me lo olÃ a yo desde el sbado. (Ive suspected it since Saturday.)Cuando se huele algo se evoca la memoria emocional. (When you suspect something it triggers the emotional memory.) Full Simple Conjugation of Oler Oler is conjugated regularly except that the o- of the stem changes to hue- when stressed. The irregular forms are shown below in boldface: Present indicative: yo huelo, tÃ º hueles, usted/Ã ©l/ella huele, nosotros/as olemos, vosotros/as olÃ ©is, ustedes/ellos/ellas huelen (I smell, you smell, you/he/she smell/smells, we smell, you smell, they smell) Imperfect indicative: yo olÃ a, tÃ º olÃ as, usted/Ã ©l/ella olÃ a, nosotros/as olÃ amos, vosotros/as olÃ as, ustedes/ellos/ellas olÃ an (I used to smell, you used to smell, etc.) Preterite indicative: yo olÃ , tÃ º oliste, usted/Ã ©l/ella oliÃ ³, nosotros/as olimos, vosotros/as olÃ as, ustedes/ello/ellas olÃ an (I smelled, you smelled, etc.) Future indicative: yo olerÃ ©, tÃ º olers, usted/Ã ©l/ella oler, nosotros/as oleremos, vosotros/as olerÃ ©is, ustedes/ellos/ellas olern (I will smell, you will smell, etc.) Conditional: yo olerÃ a, tÃ º olerÃ as, usted/Ã ©l/ella olerÃ a, nosotros/as olerÃ amos, vosotros/as olerÃ ais, ustedes/ellos/ellas olerÃ an (I would smell, you would smell, etc.) Present subjunctive: que yo huela, que tÃ º huelas, que usted/Ã ©l/ella huela, que nosotros/as olamos, que vosotros/as olis, que ustedes/ellos/ellas huelan (that I smell, that you smell, etc.) Imperfect subjunctive (more common form): que yo oliera, que tÃ º olieras, que usted/Ã ©l/ella oliera, que nosotros/as oliÃ ©ramos, que vosotros/as olierais, que ustedes/ellos/ellas olieran (that I smelled, that you smelled, etc.) Imperfect subjunctive (less common form): que yo oliese, que tÃ º olieses, que usted/Ã ©l/ella oliese, que nosotros/as oliÃ ©semos, que vosotros/as olieseis, que ustedes/ellos/ellas oliesen (that I smelled, that you smelled, etc.) Imperative: huele tÃ º, no huelas tÃ º, huela usted, olamos nosotros/as, oled vosotros/as, no olis vosotros/as, huelan ustedes (Smell! Dont smell! Lets smell! Smell! Dont smell! Smell!) Compound Conjugations of Oler Perfect forms of oler use the appropriate form of haber with the part participle, olido. For example, the first-person indicative perfect of oler is he olido (I have smelled). Progressive (or continuous) forms are formed with the present participle, oliendo, and the appropriate form of estar. For example, the first-person indicative present progressive form of oler is estoy oliendo (I am smelling). Both past and present participles are conjugated regularly. Key Takeaways The verb oler can refer to smelling something or to giving off an odor.The phrase oler a is the equivalent of the English phrases to smell of and to smell like.Most forms of oler are conjugated regularly, although the stem changes when stressed.
Friday, February 14, 2020
Creative and innovative management - Assignment Example Innovation changes knowledge, creativity and ideas into extraordinary value and competitive gain. Creative and innovation always makes an organisation to differentiate itself from its competitors. For instance, innovation or creativity need not always results in a new service or a new product. By adopting an innovative techniques, Rent-a-car, a leading rental car operator in USA is able to differentiate itself from its competitors like Avis, Hertz, National and Budget. Facing a stiff competition from the above competitors, Rent-a-Car is able to vie its competitors through introducing an innovation in its business channel, model and customer experience by emphasising on a differential user need where a customer can drive a car by himself when his car is under repair. Rent-a-car established a channel with vast network of both the neighbourhood and local offices and banked upon a unique business model where insurance companies will be paying the major share of the rentals. This innovati ve business strategy facilitated the customer to hire a car and drive by himself for any purpose ending in a diverse customer experience. The outcome was that these innovative strategies enhanced the revenue of Enterprise Rent-a-Car company annual revenue from just $1 billion in 1995 to $11.9 billions revenue in 2013 thereby pushing down the earlier market leader Hertz far behind it. Bill Gates , the founder of the Microsoft Inc, employed creativity , ingenuity , enthusiasm and long-term vision for personal computing, which has pushed Microsoft to advance sustainably and to enhance the available software technology and made strong efforts to make the personal computer cost-effective , less cumbersome and more convenience for the people to use. MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s revenue stood at $86,833 millions in 2014 and $ 77,849 millions in 2013. Bill Gates initially started his career